## Major points and concepts

Solutions:

Polar:

Nonpolar:

Unsaturated:

Mass Percent= mass of solute/mass of solution x100

Mass of solution= solute + solvent

Molarity unit= moles/liters

Dilutions:

- a homogeneous mixture
- solvent= larger amount
- solute=smaller amount
- there is only 1 solvent, but there can be multiple solutes

Polar:

- OH is negative that connects to positive H
- dissolves in water; indicated by: O, S, Halides, +, -

Nonpolar:

- no halogens
- no positive or negative charges
- OH's cause it to dissolve
- non-polar solutions dissolve in oil

Unsaturated:

- dissolves

- doesn't dissolve

- after it hits the saturation point, you force it to saturate more

- the opposite of a dilute

Mass Percent= mass of solute/mass of solution x100

Mass of solution= solute + solvent

Molarity unit= moles/liters

Dilutions:

- CfVf=CiVi
- concentration= molarity
- volume must be mL or L
- the initial concentration s always higher than the final concentration

## example calculations

1. What is the mass percent of sodium hydroxide in a solution that is made by dissolving 8.00g NaOH in 50.0g H2O?2. If you dilute 175 mL of a 1.6 M solution of LiCl to 1.0 L, determine the new concentration of the solution.

3. You need to make 10.0 L of 1.2 M KNO3. What molarity would the potassium nitrate solution need to be if you were to use only 2.5 L of it?

Answers:

1. mass percent = 13.8% NaOH solution

2. (1.6 mol/L) (175 mL) = (x) (1000 mL)--> x = 0.28 M

3. (x) (2.5 L) = (1.2 mol/L) (10.0 L)---> x = 4.8 M

3. You need to make 10.0 L of 1.2 M KNO3. What molarity would the potassium nitrate solution need to be if you were to use only 2.5 L of it?

Answers:

1. mass percent = 13.8% NaOH solution

2. (1.6 mol/L) (175 mL) = (x) (1000 mL)--> x = 0.28 M

3. (x) (2.5 L) = (1.2 mol/L) (10.0 L)---> x = 4.8 M